Learning from caries-free children in a high-caries American Indian population

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24961881

Authors: Albino J1, Tiwari T, Henderson WG, Thomas J, Bryant LL, Batliner TS, Braun PA, Wilson A, Quissell DO.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

We aimed to identify salutogenic patterns of parental knowledge, behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs that may support resistance to early childhood caries (ECC) among a high caries population of preschool American Indian (AI) children.

METHOD:

Participants were 981 child-parent dyads living on a Southwestern reservation who completed baseline assessments for an ongoing randomized clinical trial. T-tests were used to assess differences between reported knowledge, behaviors, and beliefs of parents whose children were caries-free (10.7 percent) and those whose children had caries (89.3 percent). Chi-square analyses were used for categorical variables.

RESULTS:

Although there were no socio-demographic differences, parents of caries-free children viewed oral health as more important and reported more oral health knowledge and adherence to caries-preventing behaviors for their children. Parents of caries-free children were more likely to have higher internal locus of control, to perceive their children as less susceptible to caries, and to perceive fewer barriers to prevention. These parents also had higher sense of coherence scores and reported lower levels of personal distress and community-related stress.

CONCLUSIONS:

Effective interventions for ECC prevention in high-caries AI populations may benefit from approaches that support and model naturally salutogenic behaviors.

© 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

KEYWORDS:

Caries-free children; early childhood caries; parental behavior; salutogenic behaviors

PMID:
24961881
[PubMed - in process]
PMCID:
PMC4267979
[Available on 2015/9/1]

Oral health status in Navajo Nation Head Start children

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24954053

Authors: Batliner T1, Wilson AR, Tiwari T, Glueck D, Henderson W, Thomas J, Braun P, Cudeii D, Quissell D, Albino J.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

This study assessed oral health status for preschool-aged children in the Navajo Nation to obtain data on baseline decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces (dmfs) and dental caries patterns, describe sociodemographic correlates of children’s baseline dmfs measures, and compare the children’s dmfs measures with previous dental survey data for the Navajo Nation from the Indian Health Service and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

METHODS:

The analyzed study sample included 981 child/caregiver dyads residing in the Navajo Nation who completed baseline dmfs assessments for an ongoing randomized clinical trial involving Navajo Nation Head Start Centers. Calibrated dental hygienists collected baseline dmfs data from child participants ages 3-5 years (488 males and 493 females), and caregivers completed a basic research factors questionnaire.

RESULTS:

Mean dmfs for the study population was 21.33 (SD = 19.99) and not appreciably different from the 1999 Indian Health Service survey of Navajo Nation preschool-aged children (mean = 19.02, SD = 16.59, P = 0.08). However, only 69.5 percent of children in the current study had untreated decay compared with 82.9 percent in the 1999 Indian Health Service survey (P < 0.0001). Study results were considerably higher than the 16.0 percent reported for 2-4-year-old children in the whites-only group from the 1999-2004 NHANES data. Age had the strongest association with dmfs, followed by child gender, then caregiver income and education.

CONCLUSION:

Dental caries in preschool-aged Navajo children is extremely high compared with other US population segments, and dmfs has not appreciably changed for more than a decade.

© 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

KEYWORDS:

American Indian; early childhood caries; oral health disparities; oral health status; untreated decay

PMID:
24954053
[PubMed - in process]
PMCID:
PMC4267958
[Available on 2015/9/1]

Traditional and cultural approaches to childrearing: preventing early childhood caries in Norway House Cree Nation, Manitoba

http://www.rrh.org.au/articles/subviewnew.asp?ArticleID=2968

Author(s) : Cidro J, Zahayko L, Lawrence H, McGregor M, McKay K.

ABSTRACT

Introduction:  Infant health and development is linked to a wide range of interventions including maternal nutrition and infant feeding. Early childhood caries (ECC) is a chronic condition that affects large proportions of Aboriginal children worldwide. The health of a child’s mouth is linked to their overall health and wellbeing and can have a significant impact in their day-to-day experiences of eating, playing, and sleeping. The rates of ECC have increased dramatically and communities, parents, and governments are increasingly burdened with the social, economic, and personal costs associated with treatment. There is a close association between ECC and unhealthy infant feeding practices and poor oral health care for infants. This research looked at traditional and culturally based approaches to healthy infant feeding and oral health care for infants in one remote First Nations community in northern Manitoba, Canada. Methods:  Research was already under way in the community in a longer term intervention-based project called the Baby Teeth Talk Study (BTT). In discussions on the interim findings of the study, participants discussed traditional cultural approaches practised in the community for healthy infant feeding and oral health. Using a participatory research approach, the authors engaged in a partnership with the community partner who assisted with the development of research questions as well as identifying research participants. Grandmothers in the community were recruited to participate in a total of 20 interviews and four focus groups. Results:  This article explores three key findings pertaining specifically to culturally based childrearing practices and infant oral health. Respondents discussed the importance of feeding infants country food (such as fish, moose and rabbit) at a young age for the overall health of the infant. Related to this was the use of traditional medicine to address oral health issues such as teething and thrush with salves made from tree bark rubbed on the gums of the infant. The role of swaddling and other thermal regulation techniques was identified as directly linked to oral health, particularly the development of healthy deciduous teeth. Conclusions:  Local health knowledge keepers should be a part of the discussion around health programs and public health promotion. Opportunities to share the traditions of infant feeding is an essential component in restoring skills and pride and is a mechanism for building family and community relationships as well as intergenerational support.

Key words: Aboriginal, alternative medicine, complementary medicine, early childhood caries, indigenous, infant feeding, infant health, maternal health, oral health, teething.

Dental caries in rural Alaska Native children–Alaska, 2008

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6037a2.htm

Reported by

Joseph Klejka, MD, Yukon-Kuskokwim Health Corp; Meghan Swanzy, DDS, Southcentral Foundation; Bradley Whistler, DMD, Alaska Dept of Health and Social Svcs. Caroline Jones, MD, Emory Univ School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.Michael G. Bruce, MD, Thomas W. Hennessy, MD, Dana Bruden, MS, Stephanie Rolin, MPH, Arctic Investigations Program, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases; Eugenio Beltrán-Aguilar, DMD, DrPH, Div of Oral Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; Kathy K. Byrd, MD, Farah Husain, DMD, EIS officers, CDC. Corresponding contributor: Kathy K. Byrd, kbyrd@cdc.gov, 404-718-8541.